Below is an overview of the four major dimensions of culture.
(adapted from the model of professor Geert Hofstede)
Basic Traits of Strong/ Weak Hierarchy
Strong Hierarchy Weak Hierarchy Power / Authority are facts of life Minimize social / class structures Everyone has a specific place No set hierarchy Those in power emphasize position Those in power minimize position Respect for authority Respect for individuality Centralized authority Decentralized authority
Predictors of Hierarchy
Predictors Strong Weak Climate warm cold Population Size large small Wealth unequal distribution equal distribution
In Strong Hierarchy cultures: obedience to authority (parent, boss, officials) is expected; language filled with power or hierarchy indicators;
Managers / teachers tend to be autocratic while subordinates expect direct supervision.
In Weak Hierarchy cultures, emphasis is on challenging decisions, expecting autonomy and independence.
This axis focuses on relationships between the individual and the group. Cultures that are predominantly Loyal to Self, believe the individual is the most important unit. They encourage:
- People taking care of themselves
- Making decisions based on individual needs
- “I” mentality
Cultures that are predominantly Loyal to their Group, believe the group is the most important unit. They encourage:
- Primary loyalty to group (nuclear family, extended family, caste, organization)
- Decision-making based on what is best for the group.
- Dependence on organization and institutions (Expectation that organization / institution / group will take care of individual)
- “We” mentality
Predictors of Loyal to Self and Loyal to their Group are:
|Predictors||Loyal to Self (high score)||Loyal to their Group (low score)|
|Economic development||developed / wealthy||underdeveloped / poor|
Loyal to Self cultures — people speak out, question, confrontational, are direct.
Loyal to their Group cultures — people blend in, avoidance conflict, use intermediaries.
3. Goal-oriented/ Process-oriented
This axis focuses on to what extent a society stresses achievement or nurture. Goal-oriented is seen to be the trait which emphasizes ambition, acquisition of wealth, and differentiated gender roles. Process-oriented is seen to be the trait which stresses caring and nurturing behaviors, sexuality equality, environmental awareness, and more fluid gender roles.
Predictor: Climate appears to be the best predictor of Goal-oriented/ Process-oriented. Cultures in warm climates tend to be masculine; cooler climates tend to be feminine.
Goal-oriented societies tend to see men as assertive and women as nurturing. Men tend to be competitive, visible, stress success, and vocation-oriented.Process-oriented societies tend to have both men and women in nurturing roles and much less emphasis on assertiveness for either. Both men and women focus on cooperation, awareness of those who are in need, social accommodation is important.
This axis focuses on how cultures adapt to changes and cope with uncertainty. Emphasis is on the extent to which a culture feels threatened or is anxious about ambiguity.
Basic Traits of High / Low Anxiety Avoidance
|High Predictability||Low Predictability|
|Have more formal rules||Believe that the fewer rules the better|
|Prefer details, specific plans||Tolerate generalization|
|Less tolerant of deviant ideas||Tolerate deviance|
|Consensus seeking||Seek individual opinions|
|Minimize risk||Approve of risk taking|
|Ritualized / ceremonial||Avoid ritualization and ceremony|
|Belief in absolute truth / high expertise||Accept relativity of belief|
|Tend to be low in modernization (or just at the start)||Tend to be modern|
|Often in highly changeable situations (economic, political, social)||Tend to be stable (economic, political, social)|
|Often characterized by “absolute” religions (Catholicism, Islam)||Religions emphasize relativity (Buddhism, Unitarianism)|
|Extensive legislative/judicial system|
High Predictability culture are more resistant to change, often characterized by more elaborate rituals / religious practices.
Low Predictability cultures tend to accept competition and conflict, tolerate dissent and deviance.
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