Cultural Reference Sheet

How to read this Cultural Reference Sheet

HI: Hierarchy

Level of acceptance of people, who have no power, of the unequal spread of power in their society.

HI – HI +
independence dependence
good reason for hierarchy hierarchy is just there
what goes for you goes for me special treatment
open door policy gate keepers

 

WI : We versus I

I+ : My loyalty lies with me first. Nuclear families.

I- : My loyalty lies with my group first. Extended families.

We (I-) I (I+)
we versus them me, myself & I
group opinion important own opinion important
indirect communication direct communication
loss of ‘face’, shame loss of self-respect, guilt
relationship over task task over relationship

 

PG : Process versus Goals

PG+ : Goals; Winning & decisiveness are important in society.

PG- : Process; Process & consensus are important in society.

Process (PG -) Goals (PG -)
sticking out your head out is not appreciated (socially, nor materially) winning is good and gets rewarded
equal standing
consensus competition
sympathy for the loser admiration for the winner

 

AA: Anxiety Avoidance

How cultures adapt to changes and cope with uncertainty. Emphasis on the extent to which a culture feels threatened by or is anxious about ambiguity.

Low avoidance (AA-) High avoidance (AA+)
few rules, little structure structure, rules, expertise
entrepreneurial security (avoiding the           unfamiliar)
stress-free hectic
cool, calm & collected emotions / passion

 

 Country Overview

Legend:

  • H+ = a very high score
  • H = a medium high score
  • M = a medium score
  • L = a medium low score
  • L+ = a very low score

Country

HI

WI

PG

AA

Albanië

H+

L

H

H

Angola

H

L

M

H

Arab Emirates

H+

L

M

H+
Argentina

M

M

M

H+

Australia

L

H+

H

M
Austria

L

M

H

H

Bangladesh

H+

L

M

H

Belgium

H

H

M

H+

Brazil

H

L

M

H

Bulgaria

H

L

M

H+

Bhutan

H+

M

L

L

Burkina Faso

H

L

M

M

Canada

L

H+

M

M

Cape Verde

H

L

M

H

Caucasus

H

L

M

H

Chile

H

L

L

H

China

H+

L

H

L

Colombia

H

L

H

H

Costa Rica

M

L

L

H+

Croatia

H

L

M

H

Czech Republic

M

M

M

H

Denmark

L

H

L+

L

Dominican Republic

H

L

H

M

East Africa

H

L

H

M

Ecuador

H

L+

H

H

Egypt

H

L

M

H

El Salvador

H

L

M

H+

Estonia

M

H

L

H

Ethiopia

H

L

H

M

Fiji

H

L

M

M

Finland

M

H

L

M

France

H

H

M

H+

Germany

M

H

H

H

Ghana

H

L

M

H

Greece

H

L

M

H+

Guatemala

H+

L+

L

H+

Honduras

H

L

M

M

Hong Kong

H

L

H

L

Hungary

M

H

H

H

Iceland

L

H

L+

M

India

H

M

H

M

Indonesia

H

L+

M

M

Iran

M

M

M

H

Iraq

H+

L

L

H+

Ireland

L

H

H

L

Israel

L

M

M

H

Italy

M

H

H

H

Jamaica

M

M

H

L+

Japan

M

M

H+

H+

Jordan

H

L

M

H

kenya

H

L

H

M

Kuwait

H+

L

M

H

Lebanon

H

M

H

M

Luxembourg

M

H

M

H

Malawi

H

L

M

M

Malaysia

H+

L

M

L

Malta

M

M

M

H+

Mexico

H

L

H

H+

Morocco

H

M

M

H

Namibia

H

L

M

M

Nepal H

L

L

M

Netherlands

L

H+

L+

M

New Zealand

L

H

M

M

Nigeria

H+

L

H

M

Norway

L

H

L+

M

Pakistan

H

L

M

H

Panama

H+

L

M

H+

Peru

H

L

M

H+

Philippines

H+

L

H

M

Poland

H

H

H

H+

Portugal

H

L

M H+
Romania

H+

L

M

H+

Russia

H+

L

M

H+

Saudi Arabia

H+

L

H

H

Senegal

H

L

M

H

Serbia

H+

L

M

H+

Sierra Leone

H

L

M

M

Singapore

H

L

M

L+

Slovakia

H

M

H

M

Slovenia

H

L

L

H+

South Africa

M

H

H

M

South Korea

H

L

L

H+

Spain

M

M

M

H+

Sri Lanka

H

L

L

M

Surinam

H+

M

L

H+

Sweden

L

H

L+

L

Switzerland

L

H

H

M

Syria

H

L

M

H

Taiwan

H

L

M

H

Tanzania

H

L

M

M

Thailand

H

L

M

H

Trinidad

M

L

M

M

Turkey

H

L

M

H+

United Kingdom

L

H+

H

L

United States

L

H+

H

M

Uruguay

H

L

L

H+

Venezuela

H+

L

H

H

Vietnam

H

L M

L

West Africa

H

L

M

M

Legend:

  • H+ = a very high score
  • H = a medium high score
  • M = a medium score
  • L = a medium low score
  • L+ = a very low score

This Cultural Reference Sheet gives you a practical and applicable overview of the majority of the countries in the world, and their estimated scores partly inspired on the cultural dimension of Professor Geert Hoftstede.

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